Interests: Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) carry out an important regulatory function in the environment by converting nitrite to nitrate. Few NOB representatives have been cultured in the lab due to slow generation times and difficult isolations. My research aimed to describe the cultivation of four novel freshwater Nitrotoga species, a recently discovered group of NOB, as well as the first reported Nitrotoga genomes. A deeply branching Nitrotoga NxrA protein, the key enzyme for nitrite oxidation, may represent a novel evolution of this metabolism that has not previously been reported. Future efforts will focus on the response of Nitrotoga to environmental change.